1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Too often organizations look at strategic planning only in light of the market place- the demand for the product, cost of production, expansion of product lines, etc – and only accidentally look at the manpower demands of the expanding organization. Manpower planning ensures adequate supply, proper quality and quantity as well as effective utilization. It is the means by which management establishes how the organization can grow from its current manpower position to its desired manpower positions through planning, management, strives to have the right place at the right time to do the things that in both the organization and the individual getting long time benefits. Since the 1960s, Business managers have continued to assert that the firm is neither money nor physical equipment but employees of the organisation (Nwankwo, 2007). Armstrong (2009) agrees and justifies the assertion that the overall purpose of human resource management which is, to ensure that the organisation is able to achieve its objectives through its people. The most crucial, volatile and potentially unpredictable resource which an organization utilizes are humans (Dharamvirsinh, Sarita & Prashant, 2013). The major problem confronting management in any organization is identifying and adopting the most effective way of matching these humans (people) with jobs. In addressing this challenge, Nwachukwu (2016) observes that one of the managerial functions is to ascertain organization’s manpower needs. The organization’s manpower needs is carried out through effective manpower planning which is the process of determining the policies and programmes that will develop, distribute, and utilize human resources with a view to attaining a nation’s broader goals of socio-economic and political development (Anyanwu, Oyefusi, Oaikhenan & Dimowo, 2010). Planning comprises of selecting missions, aims and deciding on the actions to realise them; it needs decision making, which is, choosing a course of action amongst all alternatives (Weihrich, Cannice & Koontz, 2008). It is a managerial function that cuts across defining an organization’s target, determining an overall strategy for achieving those targets, and developing a clear hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. It would be difficult to know the number of personnel required for recruitment, to be reassigned, due for retirement, or that need to be retrained for better utilization without effective manpower planning. Effective manpower planning reduces excessive recruitment, transfer and thereby saves management cost and time (Nwachukwu, 2016). Identifying and forecasting future skill requirements at sectorial level and implement those requirements in the training system have long been the subject of intensive research efforts and academic discussions (Wong, Chan & Chiang, 2009). It helps to enhance the development of industry formulated to maintain relative balance for the various occupations in the labour markets. With efficient human resource planning, establishment can be assured of the attainable of the right kind of individuals, in the right number, in the right place, and at the right time (Igbinomwanhia, 2010). If organization derails to harness capable and competent human resources in the appropriate areas of the business, at proper time and right amount, serious inadequacies are likely to take place creating avoidable operational difficulties or even business failure. To prevent business failure, coordination of the demand and supply is required, together with the monitoring and assessment of productivity and technological changes (Dharamvirsinh & Prashaat, 2012). In both the advanced and under-developed countries, active Manpower Policy has increasingly come to be regarded as an indispensable supplement to a policy of economic growth and that of an organization. In this regard, one can say that organization in both advanced and under-developed nations have come around the perspective of the subject as concerned by the International Labour Organization. To check unemployment that might arise in the process of economic development, develop and utilize effectively the available manpower resources, many organizations have realized the needs for the establishment of machinery for manpower planning that should initiate training program. Manpower or human capital may be effectively employed or it may be under-utilized. The need for manpower can be categorized into two parts that is the generation of skills and the utilization of skills. These can generally be regarded as the process of human capital formation of investment on human capital. The adequate usage of an organization workforce can aid the organization save some money at present and as they plan for the organization’s future. Manpower Planning needs the relationship of development managers with your human resources professionals to uphold current staff level and plans for the future workforce requirements. Manpower Planning can be utilized by organization to provide a framework by which the organization uses to prepare for and observe the future growth and manpower needs of the organization. As such, managerial objectives cannot be met without manpower planning. Enhanced performance through effective manpower planning has posed a challenge to several organisations. The reason for this may not be far-fetched. They span from faulty manpower needs forecast, making inadequate plans towards hiring the right fit, through the cost of employee training and subsequently development. These is aforementioned is linked to the organisations corporate strategy, hence the need to invest time and resources in overcoming these challenges. The main component of manpower planning on which enhanced organisational performance lies is identified by Lorette (2013). These broad components include predicting staffing needs, assesing supply, balancing of supply and Demand. These components form the foundation upon which Human Resource planning and development activities are consolidated. The negligence of an organization to develop adequate manpower planning and development may have a direct effect on the organizational performance either presently or in the future. As we know Manpower Planning is simply planned for the future manpower needs of an organization. It seeks to make sure that an organization has the right number of people at the right time, place and point and engage in activities that are economically useful and viable. In line with the above discussions, the focus of this paper is to critically examine manpower planning and operational performance of banks in Port Harcourt, Rivers state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Manpower planning encompasses the process that identifies the number of employees a company requires in terms of high quality and quantity; hence it seen as an ongoing process of regular and structured planning. This planning process confirms that employees are in the right number as required i.e. there is neither a surplus of manpower nor a shortage. Parker and Caine (2012) states that it is important for organizations to have the right number of manpower in order to avoid unwanted situation i.e. issue of shortage and excess of manpower. Hassan (2009) states that failure to properly articulate and implement the three fundamental functions of human resource planning which include labour forecast, managing demand for employees and available supply in market and keep a balance between labour supply and demand predictions will pose a great problem to oil firms in terms of cost and expertise (skilled personnel) thereby reducing their competitiveness. Gould (2015) holds that in order to gain competitive advantage over the competitors, different advantageous ways are found out using strategic human resource functions, thus showing that these functions play a critical role in making a company competitive. Human resource planning if not systematically carried out cannot bring to equilibrium demand and supply of manpower in organizations (Armstrong, 2012). The banking sector is unable to meet their human resource needs. There is a problem of inadequate right number of people to carry out the essential duties in the firm. They lack sufficient employees in the organization for production and render delivery of services as demanded by the customers in terms of service delivery, industrial production, capacity utilization and drilling operations which affects the performance of the firm negatively. Shortfall of human resource needs delay in the production process and reduces the profit of the organization. Shortfall of human resource needs in banking firms might result to poor completion of task and assignment, extra workload, increase in fatigue, high stress intensity, and decrease in the firm’s ability to meet set goals (Flippo, 2015). By having the right number of human resources at a specific time to carry out organizational services, it will help the organization to increase in their performance and productivity which in turns helps to achieve the strategic objectives and goals of the organization very easily
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine manpower planning and operational performance of banks. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the benefits of manpower planning to the organization.
2. To examine the perception of the management and staff of banks regarding the relevance of manpower planning and development
3. To examine the impact of manpower planning on the operational performance of banks.
4. To examine the challenges of manpower planning in organization.
5. To examine the relationship between manpower planning and operational performance of banks
6. To find out the organization policies being adopted in terms of its manpower development.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the benefits of manpower planning to the organization?
2. What are the perceptions of the management and staff of banks regarding the relevance of manpower planning and development?
3. What are the impacts of manpower planning on the operational performance of banks?
4. What are the challenges of manpower planning in an organization?
5. What is the relationship between manpower planning and operational performance of banks?
6. What are the organization policies being adopted in terms of its manpower development?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant impact of manpower planning on the operational performance of banks.
H1: There is a significant impact of manpower planning on the operational performance of banks.
H0: There is no significant relationship between manpower planning and operational performance of banks.
H1: There is a significant relationship between manpower planning and operational performance of banks.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Manpower planning has its real significance in the banking sector as it is a key driver towards building and maintaining organizational performance. The performance of Human Resource Practice in banking sector in Nigeria has improved and with licensing to most of the HR from developed countries introduced the modern practices in Nigeria. So this research will absolutely give a positive path towards making the banking sector Human Resource competitive as compared to other sectors, as we will check that the banking sector has an effect on their organizational performance by following the modern practices of HR. This study is necessitated by the urge and the need for the research, reader and organizations in general to understand the advantages of implementation of human resources on performance stem that will serve as tool for achieving higher organization performance. The following are the significance of study to the researcher:
· To serve as guide to corporate individuals, organization and student alike in furtherance to their research on the subject matter
· To help government in the determination of how productive is both public and private sector of the economy
· To serve as a reference materials for students who will wish to conduct similar studies on this topic.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on manpower planning and operational performance of banks, a case study of Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Manpower: These can be defined as the general total supply of personnel available or engaged for a specific job or task. It could also be referred to as the total force of a nation including both men and women.
Workforce: These can be defined as the total number of workers employed by a company or organization on a specific job, project etc. It could be said also to be the total number of people who could be employed in a country.
Human Resources: These the department in an organization charged with finding, screening, recruiting and training job applicants as well as administering employee benefits program.
Performance: Is an accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed.
Management: Is the act of coordinating the efforts of people to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. These comprises of planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing and controlling an organization.
Organization: Is a social entity that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.