CHAPTER ONE1.0 INTRODUCTION1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYAgriculture involves the cultivation of land, raising and rearing ofanimals and raw materials for industries. It involves cropping live stock,forestry, and fishing, processing and marketing of these agriculturalproducts.Food is man‟s most important basic need before those of clothing andshelter. It is provision therefore, has been the major concern of man from thepast years since it is both an essential condition and sinequanon to life.Agriculture being the provider of food can then be concluded as the life wireof any nation and thus be concluded as the life wire of any nation and thus itsimportance cannot be over emphasized.When Nigeria gained their political Independence in 1960, agriculturewas dominant sector of the economy. It contributed over 65% of thecountry‟s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and provided the bulk of theforeign exchange earnings through the foreign exports of the cash crops. Thesector catered adequately for nearly all food requirement and raw materialsfor industry in the country. Agriculture performs a number of functions inan economy such as:1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMNigerian agriculture is confronted with many problems which rangedfrom low yield to low productivity and inadequate facilities among others.Oyatooye (1981) was on the same path when he noted that the problem ofagriculture in Nigeria can be discussed under four headings.I. TechnologyII. MarketingIII. Finance and GovernmentSuch problems include problems of providing adequate extensionservices, agricultural inputs, storage facilities, agricultural credit, marketinginformation and efficient marketing arrangement, infrastructures such asfeeder roads efficient power supply and institutional reforms wherenecessary. William (1981) pointed out that, the major problems facingNigeria today are the needs to transform her agricultural industry from onetraditional input with low productivity to one which enables her to meet therising expectations of her people and to correct the social and economicimbalance created by lopsided development between her rural and urbanareas which have encouraged the youths and others to migrate from ruralareas.His statement is a valid one as when it was made from we have seen, theNigerian economy is characterized by a high degree of rural to urban drift insearch of greener pastures leaving the farm land to old aged men who areunable to provide all the food requirements of the growing population. Thisis responsible of the growing population. This is responsible for the high costof food as there is pressure on the little produced.
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