1.0 INTRODUCTION AND STATEMTN OF PROBLEM
Our present concern about skills development in information and communication technology in Nigeria classroom stem from the fact that skills development in information and communication technology in Nigeria classrooms have not received the attention it deserved because modern life requires that the quality of education be improved.
In the present day secondary schools, lack of skills in ICT has lead to the problem the students are facing now. Information and communication Technology, took its stand as an occupational technology as far back as early sixties (1969s) in the development country particularly U.S.A. Before this particular time, development of skills in these areas were not given attention until the early eighties (1980s) and was recognised as educational technology being an educational pursuit (River State University of Science and Technology, faculty of Science and Technical Education, Department of science and Technical Education S. W. and Dokubo A.; Dr Alice E. Asimi; Dr Iroha Kalu Department of curriculum and Teaching, faculty of Education, University of calabar, calabar and Benedict O. E. Ani main library, University of calabar, calabar.
Information and communication Technology (ICT) consist of hardware, software, networks, media for collection, virtual learning environment, internet Gateway, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information ( voice, data, text and images).
As suggested by world Bank (2002) The internet is a powerful tool for improving the quality of a wide range of public service important for poverty reduction, especially education and health.
Emphasis is laid on students in secondary schools in the Nigeria classroom who lacks the latest technology and designed material skills in ICT to complete in global economy.
Information and communication Technology (ICT), Stand as a platform for skills acquisition. This is based on the computer and Nigeria telecommunication technology. It provides relevant knowledgeable information in diverse field of study. Other skills development are concerned with how to operate (D-ROM and 1. 44 floppy diskettes.
New concepts, New products, and New ideas is produced everyday with the help of skills development in information and communication Technology this transforming the lives of students in the classroom and also industries as well as business in the whole wide world.
The role of technology in teaching and learning is rapidly becoming one of the most important and widely discussed issued in contemporary education policy (Rosen and Well, 1995; Thierer, 2002),
Most expects in the field of education agreed that when properly used, Information and communication technology hold great promise to improve teaching and learning in addition to shaping workforce opportunities people (1996) has indicated that computer illiteracy is now regarded as new illiteracy. This has actually gingered a new and strong desire to equip schools with computer facilities and qualified personal necessary to produce technological proficient and efficient student in development countries of the world.
There is no doubt that computer can aid the instructional process and facilities students learning in the Nigeria classroom. Many studies have found positive effect associated with technology aided instruction (Burnelt, 1994, and fitzgerald and warner, 1996).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Skills development in ICT emanates from the urgent need for greater efficiency in teaching/learning process in Nigeria classroom. This has always been a matter of concern to many people who have stake in education (Dwyer, 1996; Gibson 2001; Sambo; 2002). Improved efficiency is necessary, if for no other reason than the increasing complexity of the knowledge skills for survival itself.
The general increase in the awareness of the importance of education to a successful life has intensified certain problems in the Nigeria education science of today. However, the world Bank report (2002) reveals that Nigeria has been identified as one of the poorest countries in the world, with a high rate of youths unemployment, as a result of low level of ICT skills development in the modern Orientated society and this is a global problem. From the skills identified, only handling of text and images, sound and music, storing and retrieving have been a little bit studied. This simply means that for students to develop skills in ICT there must be great interest on their part in this study.
Nigeria ranks among countries with low level of ICT skills adoption. The area they are lacking include fixedline and mobile telephones per 1000 people -5, personal computers per 100 people - 6.6; Internet users per thousand- 200 as compared to south African with the following figures 304, 61.8 and 2, 400 respectively. The outcome of such skills that has been studied before will definitely aid in teaching - learning-learning situations especially sorting or retrieving answers of difficult assignment in the website relating to the study.
The problem is to make available learning situation with many flexibility for each student in the classroom in other to help them develop different skills, and to make adjustment suited to his/her individual needs.
All races, All faith and all parts of the Nigeria classrooms have not well developed ICT skills. Little wonder, that this matter has become a focus of concern or all educators. What has been lacking is a plan for action that should be taking into consideration those certain factors that tend to control and make the learning environment a serious place in the Nigeria classrooms. Some of these factors are the realities of providing a means of financing school and to make construction, the capabilities and training of present teachers. These problems of ICT skills development in the Nigeria classroom provided a number of logical questions been argued in the mind: The questions are as follows below:
(1) How can a science teacher provided effective instruction for a class of fourty (40) who have a wide range of abilities, interests and needs?
(2) As large variety of ICT is given in our disposal ''should they be taught how to locate, retrieve, analyse, use, and store information?
Most educationalists feels that the solution for students /individual differences in the classroom lies in the individualisation of instruction ( moore and moore 1983; Honey et al; 1999). Again the world Bank report (2002) has shown that there exists a correlation between IT and national prosperity.
Hence, the role of the ICT use and adequate skills development in Nigeria classrooms and on Nigeria economy is an attempt to match Nigeria to the community of producing competent teachers and students, and been a rich nation cannot therefore be overemphasised.
Report from N.T.A News reviews that ICT skills had not well developed in he Nigeria classrooms and that this is a globalisation problem caused by teachers who are not competent enough in their field of study so as such they cannot impact knowledgeable skills to information to the students. Correspondents suggested that programmes should be hold to develop these ICT skills and that the skills to be develop in ICT is the digital parts of the internet to facilitate information (Newsline, 2006) 17th September. Other impediments to skills accusation in ICT are (1) Cost (2) Weak Infrastructure (3) Lack of skills (4) Lack of relevant software and limited access to the internet would be explained in further details.
Hence, is this study emphasis would be laid on skills development in information and communication technology in Nigeria classroom. The teacher is seen to have constitute greater problems in teaching and learning as a result of lack of ICT skill training. And also is this study, emphasis would be placed on secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Here we are going to discuss ICT skills that have been studied before, their outcome, if anybody has made skills acquisition in the area, and if such remark has logically subjected to a study? This and many more will be discussed in this research work.
1.3 ASSUMPTION OF STUDY
The following assumptions were drawn up to determine the problems of skills development in information and communication technology in Nigeria classrooms.
- Lack of skills or communication link between the teachers and the students in the classrooms
- Lack of relevant software and limited access to the internet.
- Weak Infrastructure.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
For a more, easy and comprehensive research work, the following hypothesis would help the researcher in doing a good and successive work:
(1) Does lack of skills link between teaches and students causes problems in skills development in ICT?
(2) Does lack of communication link between teachers and students causes problems in ICT skills development?
(3) Does lack of relevant software, and limited access to the internet to Nigeria education system, in short supply?
(4) Is cost responsible for lack of the infrastructures in he classrooms?
(5) Does weak infrastructure a formidable obstacle to the use of ICT?
1.5 PURPOSE/SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
At the completion of this research work, it is of great importance to note that various communities, towns, states, and Nigeria in general will find the result of this research work to be beneficial to great and marvellous extent, as this research work would play an essential rule in the task of educational standard, growth and development in secondary schools.
The results from this research work will also provide an ample opportunity for teachers to be aware of what role they must play in other to help students acquire knowledgeable information about one study.
Again student's in secondary schools will be aware of the importance of computer and other devices in teaching and learning and how they can benefit from it.
The research work will also provide an ample opportunity for the researcher and other readers to obtain a first hand and high degree of information as to skills development and communication technology in secondary schools in Edo State.
1.6 DELIMITATION/SCOPE OF THE STUDY SCOPE
This researcher work is design to determine skills development in information and communication technologies in classrooms. It seeks to sought the skills needed to be developed, opinion from correspondents particularly teachers in selected schools, problems of the study and their actions on educational standard.
For a simple and clear research study, this work should be limited to secondary schools within Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.
However various work of life or resource persons and their response would be treated with strict secrecy, use of skills in pedagogical situation would also be investigated and we would also see if these developed skills would help in global combativeness in Nigerian and the classroom environment.
Secondary schools involved are as follows below:
(A) Evbuotubu Secondary School South East in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State.
(B) Asoro Secondary School South East in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State.
(C) Emotan College South West in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State.
(D) Adolor College South West in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State.
(E) Oba Akenzuwa Secondary School South West in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State.
(F) Integrity National High School KM 4 in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State.
(G) Idia College South West in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State.
(H) Anglican Girls Grammar School South in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State.
(I) Itohan Girls Grammar School South in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State.
(J) Greater tomorrow and World of Faith Secondary South East in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State.
In private secondary like greater tomorrow and world of faith secondary both tin South East in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State. When I visited, personal interview with teachers were held and I was also opportune to see their computer room, and other devices. ICT technology is more in these school and efficient due to the following reasons: first financial capacity for purchasing pore is greater when compare to government school.
After much research in these school about skills development in ICT, I observed that every students has a great assess to each computer.
Secondly, there are much skillful and well trained computer wizard teaching/passing the knowledge of ICT skills to the students. In both schools, students learning capacity is faster because about 60-70 percent of them uses computer and other ICT facilities at home as well as in school making them to be more informed in all areas of education. The opposite is the government secondary school where the teachers complained of lack of ICT facilities due to lack of fund, no project implemented by the government to facilitate ICT technological programmes, Insecurity of these facilities, lack of electricity in school premises. In government secondary school, Evbuotubu to be precise there's no skilled or good computer wizard that can pass information Example: (Computer study) to students because the school cannot afford to pay for their salaries thereby depriving the students to know more about ICT skills acquisition.
The private secondary schools have very rich standard in ICT education while the reverse is the case in government secondary school. Insecurity and purchase of these facilities is another problems too in the school.
DELIMITION OF THE STUDY
The study has been to examine skills development in information and communication technology in Nigeria secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The research work is carried out at the period that was faced with many difficulties. Lack of finance posed the most difficult limitation because the research was carried out with little amount of fund making purchase of material very difficult for the project work. Transportation is also another limitation to this study which hinders my visit to different libraries in other collages and university for more extensive review work of one past.
Finally, most respondents could not expatiate the reason for ICT skills development in secondary schools affecting the development of the project. It also took me great deal of time and energy to explain points that were not clearly understood to the respondents in other to have their own view on the matter. Some declined comment to some questions asked during interviewed.
Other delimitation involves
(1) ICT skills development in rural areas in the Local Government is very low compared to the urban areas. This is as a result of lack of fund to purchase ICT facilities, lack of trained staffs and lack of interest on students part.
(2) Some teachers fails to take to consideration the fact that achievement of teaching and learning depend on adequate planning and utilisation of ICT facilities.
(3) Shortage of electricity supply is another factors for skills development in information and communication technology.