1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The issue of displaced persons in recent time has been a worldwide development. The displacement across the world is owing to communal violence, natural disaster, internal armed conflicts, border conflicts, ethno-religious conflicts and terrorist attacks. Regardless of the reason behind the displacement, the development continuously leaves socioeconomic, political and physical assaults on legion folks worldwide, such as: vulnerability to security and physical threats, loss of lives and properties, loss of contact with kids and relations, inadequate and insecure shelter, discrimination in aids distribution, psycho-social stress, sexual and gender-based violence. different challenges embrace loss of private documentation, hampered access to health care, adequate food, water and sanitation, education, employment, lack of access to basic services, issue of housing, land and property, and unsafe or involuntary come, native integration or relocation (United Nations Human Rights, 2011). Changing into displaced at intervals one's own country doesn't confer special status within the same sense as will changing into an expatriate. IDPs stay voters or habitual residents of a selected country and still are entitled to fancy the rights offered to the population as an entire. However, thanks to their special state of affairs, specific wants and also the heightened vulnerability that result the actual fact of being displaced, they're entitled to special protection and help (Muhammed, 2013). Recent happenings in Nigeria show that internal displacement in Nigeria is not only caused by natural and human made disasters, ethno-religious-political conflicts, but mainly due to insurgency especially in the North-East geo political zone. The most severe problem facing Nigeria in general and North-East in particular is insurgency. Insurgency has devastating consequences on economic, religious, political and social activities of the Nigerian state, particularly within the state of Borno, Yobe, Bauchi, Plateau, Kaduna, Niger, and a few others. The activities of the insurgents are damaging each physically and psychological (Danjibo, 2009, Anifowose, 2012, Abide, 2012, Ilechukwu, 2014). In fact, the activities of Boko Haram have stimulated the other ethnic groups to embark on extra judicial adventures which might cause lawlessness and collapse of the state. Also, through Boko Haram activities, foreign direct investment in Nigeria has attenuate and Nigeria's investment climate has conjointly been declared risky and expatriates are weary of operating in Nigeria owing to the unsafe nature of the country. A heavy supply of concern but lies with internal displacement of persons (IDPS) arising as a results of insurgents invasion of North East geo-political zone in Federal Republic of Nigeria. The invasion of insurgent cluster within the region started in style of socio-political cluster. In 2011 it took a replacement dimension, once Boko Haram as foreign terrorist organization appeared within the world map. From 2011 until date, the activities of this insurgent cluster have inflicted serious injuries and hardship to the lives and properties of individuals within the space. Thousands of lives and properties are destroyed whereas many folks are displaced from their permanent homes. Boko Haram attacks have undermined public safety across the country particularly within the North East geo-political zone and frightened it development. The attack includes daily killings, bombing, thefts and destruction of faculties, home and businesses. Also, several villages were annexed and declared “sovereign state” of Boko Haram territory (Daily Trust, 2014). About 3.3 million internally displaced persons (IDPS) exist in Federal Republic of Nigeria out of that 850,000 are from North East. This population just about represent 10% and third of IDPS within the world behind Asian country (6.5 million) and Republic of Colombia (5.7 million), and highest population of conflict displaced persons in Africa (Premium Times, 2015). The increasing deadly attacks of the insurgents on numerous communities and also the destruction of lives, properties, business and farm lands has forced several inhabitants' to escape their homes to close cities and villages. This case needs government pressing intervention to start a lot of sober responses to the plight of the internally displaced persons.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It is a paradox that Nigeria is a rich country, inhabited by the poor and accounts for the highest percentage of internally displaced persons in Africa as a result of conflict and generalized violence. The increasing spread of nefarious activities of the Boko Haram sect in Nigeria and the destruction of lives and property is a serious issue that could not be dismissed with a wave of hand. In the last few years, the security situation in the country has worsened. Bombing, killing, mass murder, abduction, kidnapping and other crimes against humanity are on the increase in Nigeria as a result of communal violence, natural disaster, internal armed conflicts, border conflicts, ethno-religious conflicts and terrorist attacks. It is instructive to state that this development has resulted into wanton destruction of lives and properties, displacement of people from their original homes, segregation of families and communities. In an attempt to reduce the citizens suffering as a result of security challenges confronting the country especially in the North East geo-political zone, various humanitarian measures have been introduced by the federal government through the establishment of National Emergency Management Agencies (NEMA) at the federal and state levels with the support of international agencies for the effective management of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Nigeria. Insurgency has forced many IDPs in the North-East to run to neighbouring communities that are safe, usually taking refuge in temporary shelters such as schools, public buildings and places of worship among others; having been deprived of their homes and sometimes their land and livelihoods. IDPs in Nigeria faced insecurity and all forms of exploitation and abuse, including rape, largely because IDPs are camped in congested shelters, isolated, insecure or inhospitable areas. One of the fundamental bases of existence of government in any society is the protection of lives, properties and cormfortable environment for the people especially during the period of crisis. It is disheartening to note that the Nigerian government, over the years, have consistently displayed incompetency in taking care of displaced persons, most especially, in terms of funding, provision of materials and facilities. Also, the government has not adequately addressed the needs of internally displaced persons through the provision of humanitarian assistance and overseeing their return, resettlement and reintegration through normal sectoral planning. In Nigeria, there is lack of standard coordinated multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary procedures and guides for government institutions, development and humanitarian agencies in planning and responding to matters of internal displacement of persons in a significant and effective manner as it is applicable in developed and most developing nations across the globe.
1.2 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the study of management of internally displaced persons in Nigeria. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the nature of internal displacement of persons in Northern Nigeria.
2. To examine the level of effectiveness of federal, states governments and other bodies in the management of internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria.
3. To examine the effect of management of internally displaced persons on the well being of the persons.
4. To examine the challenges associated with management of internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria.
5. To examine the relationship between insurgency and internally displaced persons in northern Nigeria.
6. To examine the coping strategies of proper management of internally displaced persons in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the nature of internal displacement of persons in Northern Nigeria?
2. What is the level of effectiveness of federal, states governments and other bodies in the management of internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria?
3. What are the effects of management of internally displaced persons on the well being of the persons?
4. What are the challenges associated with management of internally displaced persons in Northern Nigeria?
5. What is the relationship between insurgency and internally displaced persons in northern Nigeria?
6. What are the coping strategies of proper management of internally displaced persons in Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: There is no significant effect of management on well being of internally displaced persons in Nigeria.
H02: There is no significant relationship between insurgency and management of internally displaced persons in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study will be of three fold i.e. to the researcher himself, to the body of knowledge and to the society at large.
i. To the researcher: The study will further expose him to the concepts insurgency and internal displacement of persons and how it can be properly managed to facilitate proper security in order to facilitate rapid human development in Nigeria.
ii. To the body of knowledge: Through reviewing of related literature, the study will identify gaps left uncovered or fill by previous researchers and fill these gaps. By doing this, the study must have immensely added to the existing knowledge.
iii. To the society at large: Similar to that of researcher, it will make the members of the society get acquainted to insurgency and internally displaced persons (IDPs), its problems in the society, and how it affects human condition in his environment which make the economic, cultural, political, social and educational sectors to fall below standard and how it can be properly managed to improve security situation in order to facilitate concrete, rapid development in Northern Nigeria and Nigeria at large.
Additionally, it will be of immense important and serves as source of secondary data or material for future researchers who may want to carry out similar study on the topic under investigation.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the study of management of internally displaced persons in Nigeria: case study of internally displaced persons in northern Nigeria
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Management: It is very difficult to give a precise definition of the term management. Different scholars from different disciplines viewed and interpreted management from their own angels. The Economist considered management as a resource like land, labor, capital and organization. The bureaucrat looks upon it as a system of authority to achieve business goals. The sociologists consider managers as a part of the class elite in the society.
Insurgency: Insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when these taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as bell gents. An insurgency can be fought via counter – insurgency- welfare, and may also be opposed by measures to protect the population, and by political and economic actions of various kinds aimed at undermining the insurgent’s claims against the incumbent regime (Wikipedia, 2015).
Internally Displayed Persons (IDPs):- According to Wikipedia, (2015), an internally displayed person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country’s borders. They are often referred to as refuges although they do not fall within the current legal definition of refugees. Internally displayed people (also known as DPRE in many civil and military organizations) are people or groups of people who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflicts, situations of generalized violence, violation of human rights, natural or human made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized state border (Wikipedia, 2015)