1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
During Nigerian independence in 1960, the culture of political orientation and parliamentarianism was transmissible by the British (Jaga, 1996). Before 1960, the assorted constitutional changes from 1922-1960 contributed in setting a firm foundation for Nigerian federal structure. The unitary structure that was established in 1914 had bit by bit metamorphosed into a three regional structure with a weak central government in 1960, four regions in 1963. Historically speaking, the difficulty of state creation in Nigeria started so much back as 1963, once the Midwest geographic area was sliced out of the previous Western Region by the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa administration. In 1967 the country was further divided into twelve states by the administration of General Yakubu Gowon. This progressive increase within the range of territorial units continued in 1976 once the Murtala Administration created an additional seven states, making the total of states nineteen. Between 1987 and 1991, General Babangida in two separate exercises, created eleven extra states, conveyance the full up to thirty states. And in 1996, the Abacha administration created six more states to make the territorial units of the country thirty six. Nigeria has undergone a protracted method of restructuring in terms of the number of geo-political body units constituting the polity. This method is popularly referred to as “state creation” and/or “reorganization” the method whereby new geo-political units/constituents referred to as “states” in most federations is created out of existing or old ones. The result of this method is sometimes a rise within the range of states constituting the Nigerian federation. In trying to trace the history and politics of state creation in Nigeria, scholarly opinions vary widely, virtually occasioning confusion, with explicit reference to the temporal order of the primary exercise. A serious means that of evaluating the extent of civilization or civic of contemporary political systems are the extent and extent to that they're well-organized. The political organization of states most frequently, reflects the structure of governmental authority, level of body potency and therefore the attendant power relations. Supported the structure, it's convenient to see the extent to that authority is spread or focused in a very explicit social group. This dynamic face of Nigeria’s federal structure went at the same time with changes within the distribution schemes that were embedded in past constitutions or decrees. These changes within the federal arrangements also conjointly caused further decentralization of governmental functions to the constituents units in the federation. This successfully influenced the follow of intergovernmental financial relations that is a lot more of concerning however the assorted tiers of government relates monetary within the execution of these function. Nigeria operates a federal political economy (federalism) implying a series of legal body relationships established among units of state possessing variable degrees of real authority and territorial autonomy (Anyanwu, 2005) ascertained, currently. The introduction of the 1946 constitution altered considerably the formal unitary structure living by introducing regionalism to the pattern of colonial administration in African country. Though the constitution wasn't strictly federal, the creation of the regional level of governments in real time raised the question of allocating revenue among the central government, the new regional centers and therefore the recent native authority government (Adebayo, 1988). The method of revenue allocation has over the years danced to the rhythm of constitutional, decrees or body changes. The character of revenue allocation has mirrored a personality of complexness that is embodied by contestations and disagreement among the various segments of the country as a consequence of the revenue sharing formula adopted subsequent upon it. The sensitivity and lack of agreement among the states and levels of governments on the difficulty of revenue allocation, has led to the putting in place of various ad- hoc (1946-88) and permanent revenue allocation commissions (1989-date) to evolve or build “immediate adjustment that would build the revenue allocation one that is fair and just” (Adesina, 1988). This paper therefore intends to spot whether or not the revenue distribution arrangement has more experienced the character of fairness and justice by taking a historical examination of the movement of political restructuring in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
As a system of political arrangement, federalism has endured as one of the most preferred form of governmental authority in the modern world. Its attraction borders on its perceived integrative tendency that serves heterogeneous societies well in situation of crisis. To all intents and purposes, resource control remains a major point of disagreement between the centre and the federating units. It raises important questions of ownership, control, management, equity, justice, fairness, natural rights, even development; and the processes of inter-governmental relations. However, the politics of domination strategy adopted, particularly by the major ethnic groups shortly after independence created a non-accommodations scenario that seriously undermined the potentials of the federal structure in the country. Also, the emergence of the military on the political scene brought about a military styled federal system of administration characterized by over-centralization. Politics and governance under such an atmosphere of undue centralism created fertile ground for corruption, primodialism and explosive ethnic competition. The viability and potentials of sub-national entities as co-ordinate spheres of authority and development was equally undermined, as they became mere appendage of the central government. The eventual outcomes were a general sense of alienation, frustration, insecurity and subjugation. The necessity of harnessing and integrating the country’s diverse indigenous experiences into the governance framework becomes fundamental for proactive and positive civic engagement. Effective mass participation emplaces accountability and transparency which are viable ingredients in the management of governmental powers and resource utilization.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the movement of political restructuring in Nigeria. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the nature of the Nigerian politics.
2. To examine real structure of the nationwide call for restructuring.
3. To examine whether the call for restructuring is another political strategy from the political jobbers or a genuine call to redefine, reassess and review the country’s economic and political situations.
4. To examine the challenges of political restructuring.
5. To examine the relationship between political restructuring and economic development.
6. To suggest ways in which political restructuring can help in developing Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the nature of the Nigerian politics?
2. What is real structure of the nationwide call for restructuring?
3. Is the call for restructuring another political strategy from the political jobbers or a genuine call to redefine, reassess and review the country’s economic and political situations?
4. What are the challenges of political restructuring?
5. What is the relationship between political restructuring and economic development?
6. What are the ways in which political restructuring can help in developing Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no impact of political restructuring in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant impact of political restructuring in Nigeria.
H0: There is no significant relationship between political restructuring and economic development in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant relationship between political restructuring and economic development in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
At the completion of the study, it is believed that the findings will be of great importance to the federal government of Nigeria as the study seek to enumerate the benefit of political restructuring to the national unity of the country, this is because when the federal character is properly adhered to it brings the sense of oneness and national unity, the findings of the study will also help the long standing problem of national disunity in the country The study will also be of great benefit to researcher who intends to embark on research in similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to the study. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, researchers, lecturers, teachers, students, and the general public as the findings will add to the pool of knowledge.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the movement of political restructuring in Nigeria.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Movement: A group of people working together to advance their shared political, social, or artistic ideas.
Political: Relating to government, or the conduct of government, concerned with the making as distinguished from the administration of governmental policy.
Restructuring: Bringing about a drastic or fundamental internal change that alters the relationships between different components or elements of an organization or system.