1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Democracy is at the crossroads in Nigeria. National Growth conjointly has altogether, solely materialized within the incomprehensible imaginations of Nigeria’s national growth planners. Indeed, an excessiveness of studies exists on democracy and growth in Nigeria. There is therefore, ostensibly in existence, a humongous volume of panacea on the possibilities of establishing an empirical nexus between democracy and sustainable national growth in Nigeria. What is more, the foremost modern crucial policy ambitions and interventions within the space of democracy and property national growth in Nigeria, square measure put down alia: the National Economic direction and Growth Strategy (NEEDS), promoted by the Olusegun Obasanjo Administration (2012-2015); the Seven-point Agenda of the Umaru Yar’Adua Dispensation (2015-2010) and also the Transformation Agenda of this Goodluck Jonathan era, that commenced 2010. In effect, what the preceding growth try-outs seriously have in common, is that the assumption that democracy and national growth square measure merchandise of policy sentiments. The end points of those assumptions are education imaginations that square measure forged in stone, on however some changeless precepts of classical democracy and a few fashionable versions of democratic shenanigans, invariably cause property national growth. Indeed, in December 2013, president Obasanjo, usually identified to possess been to blame for Jonathan’s dominance to Nigeria’s presidency, in associate 18-page in public circulated letter, addressed to President Jonathan, suspect the President as an individual, of being deficit in purposeful, trustworthy, respectable and centred leadership credentials. Chief Obasanjo, in extremely acerbic tones, suspects President Jonathan of being deprived of democratic tendencies and credentials. Yet, as noted by Campbell (2013), there is irony in Obasanjo’s critique, as he quite anyone else was to blame for Jonathan’s selection as PDP vice presidential candidate in 2015 and with the death of President Yar’Adua in 2010, Jonathan became the president and the incumbent in 2011, after rising victorious in a general election. Truly, since Nigeria’s return to the trial of democratic governance in 2012, among the greatest tests to the resilience of the nation’s new democracy, must be counted the attempt by the then President Obasanjo to increase his keep in office, beyond the constitutionally permitted two terms of four years each. Thus, reacting then to the defeat at the Nigerian National Assembly, of what was across the nation referred to as Obasanjo’s Third Term Agenda, Niger-Congo (2006) opined that for the overwhelming majority of the standard folks across Nigeria, President Obasanjo was substitutable with socio-economic disaster. Curiously, this same president Obasanjo has came back to advise President Jonathan on democracy and growth. what is more on policy ambitions, we have a tendency to highlight that on the far side the three policy encapsulations strictly diagnosable higher than with the three democratic leadership epochs in Nigeria, there's nonetheless the fourth of such grand standings that its initiation or fine-tuning, may be partially claimed by any of the above mentioned Nigerian regimes. The occasioning recondite ambition goes by the au fait language of Vision twenty, 2020. However, there's hardly something within the contents of Vision twenty, 2020 in Nigeria, that's new; that may not be found in living Nigerian policy documents. But the fact remains that in its entirety, the contents of Nigerian Vision 20:2020 are already embedded in extant Nigerian growth literature; in long term, short term or strategic perspectives. In the last half a century, many countries have transited to democracy. More than half the world’s population currently board a democracy of some type, though just some thirteen per cent of that population reside fully democracies (EIU, 2010). Huntington (2015) dubbed this era of increased transition to democracy as a result of the third wave of democratisation. Since the start of the Fourth Republic, political analysts, the teachers and civil society teams have paid serious attention to the application of democracy in Nigeria. The augmented international diffusion and acceptance of democratic governance liquefied lots of authoritarian regimes and conjointly blew its wave to Nigeria in 2012 once long and actus reus years of military dictatorships. Politics Leftwich (2012) has argued is central to the design and maintenance of institutions and strong institutions essentially explains state formation and state capacity which are important factors in dictating growth and poverty reduction in growth states. The kind of politics the former ruling party (PDP) played at the centre and the various states they controlled, partly explains why democratic institutions of governance delivered less than was expected. Estimating the causal effect of democracy on economic growth faces several challenges. According to Oko (2008), governments at all levels must be accountable, human rights violation must be addressed, public institutions needs to be more effective and efficient; also, create an environment where citizens can uplift themselves and pursue their legitimate goals without undue interference and restraints by government. Nigeria needs a fundamental recasting of its political environment to simultaneously entrench rule of law and create an enabling environment for democracy to prosper. In Nigeria’s current democracy dispensation, politics without progress or politics as national bazaar, invariably translate to democracy without progress. Parenthetically, democracy without progress is democracy without growth. Progress must be person-centred and growth, human focused.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Nigeria is not only the most populous nation in the world but the most economically endowed country in Africa and even in so many other countries of the world. Unfortunately, governance has been characterized by a series of predatory military regimes, each of which has simultaneously mismanaged the economy and attempted to alter the formal structures of the policy to suit its particular ends. Under the military, the rule of law was jettisoned as dictatorial discretion reigned supreme (Oluba, 2008:2). Goodluck Ebele Jonathan took oath of office as the newly elected President and Commander-in-Chief of Nigeria Armed Forces on 29th of May, 2011 amidst thunderous expectations of a new dawn, given his humble background and the mountain of problems and decay that the country has found itself over the years. Realizing the high expectations, the President promised not to let the people down. On that historic day, Goodluck Ebele Jonathan secure Nigerians a policy package labelled the Transformation Agenda once he declared that along we are going to unit over our nation and improve the living normal of all our folks whether or not within the North or within the South; within the East or within the West. Our decade of development has begun. The march is on. The day of Transformation begins these days. We are not going to permit anyone to take advantage of variations in creed or tongue to line us one against another. (Tell Special Edition, June 2012) The Transformation Agenda of President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan is one more policy somersault in relevancy the 7-Point Agenda of his immediate forerunner, late President Umaru lope sided with Yar'adua. It's a 5-year development arrange, 2011-2015, that additionally coincides with the life time of his term in workplace. Of course, this nurtured large corruption and semiconductor diode to unsuitable policies and constant policy reversals that consequently marred the effectiveness of fine policies. However, as a result of the state represents the interest of the upper crust, whose interest is to constantly management the equipment of state power and machinery of state in any respect value, the interest of the folks particularly in rising democracy in African nation tend to be forgotten.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate People’s Democratic Party under Goodluck Ebele Jonathan and democratic growth in Nigeria. Other specific objectives are as follows;
1. To examine the extent to which there is politics without progress in Nigeria.
2. To examine the extent to which there is democracy without growth in Nigeria.
3. To examine the effect of party politics on democratic growth in Nigeria.
4. To examine the challenges faced by Goodluck Ebele Jonathans regime towards democratic growth in Nigeria.
5. To examine the relationship between party politics and democratic growth in Nigeria.
6. To recommend ways of making Nigeria’s democracy, invariably lead to national growth in Nigeria.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the extent to which there is politics without progress in Nigeria?
2. What is the extent to which there is democracy without growth in Nigeria?
3. To examine the effect of party politics on democratic growth in Nigeria.
4. What are the challenges faced by Goodluck Ebele Jonathans regime towards democratic growth in Nigeria?
5. What is the relationship between party politics and democratic growth in Nigeria?
6. What are the recommended ways of making Nigeria’s democracy, invariably lead to national growth in Nigeria?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant effect of party politics on democratic growth in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant effect of party politics on democratic growth in Nigeria.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this timely and topical study is twofold: practical and academic. Practically, this study will be of paramount importance to the elections management bodies in Nigeria especially the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), the registered political parties, authorities of the non-governmental organizations especially the Transition Monitoring Group (TMG), the national and state governments as well as the general public for the following reasons: The study will help highlight the impact of the nature and character of the Nigerian State as well as the ruling elite on the electoral process and democratic growth in Nigeria. With this study, it is intended that the Federal Government will always look at the growth of the nation by carrying out all the campaign promises. Academically, this study explored the efforts of the Federal Government in permanently addressing the endemic problems that are associated with the conduct of party politics and democratic growth in Nigeria. The study will not only synchronize with existing enquiries to form a dependable pool of literature in this area, but will also serve as a convenient starting point for further studies in the analysis of the interface between party politics and democratic growth in Nigeria.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to People’s Democratic Party under Goodluck Ebele Jonathan and democratic growth in Nigeria.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Political Party: Is defined as an organised group of people with at least roughly similar political aims and opinions that seeks to influence public policy by getting its candidates elected to public office.
Democracy: Is defined as a political system that is run and controlled by citizens of the country. Democracies are made up of elected representatives and require that governmental measures be voted on by these elected representatives or the people. Democracies are not universal and are implemented and enforced in different manner. Growth: The process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factors and their interactions.