1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The overwhelming influence of television on the lives of people since its invention has over the years become not only un-debatable, but equally stunning. Television according to Onwuegbu, (2001) is an electronic cum audio-visual device through which viewers watch recorded and live programmes on air. The influence of television on the lives of people stems not only from the three roles it plays - as a medium of information, education and entertainment. Also many groups have taken solace in television and its programmes as means of relaxation, recreation, withdrawal, goal setting and socialization. Violence on society has been studied widely and smartly debated. Supported the cumulative proof of studies conducted over many decades, the scientific and public health communities overpoweringly conclude that viewing violence poses a harmful risk to youngsters. Critics of the analysis challenge this conclusion and dispute claims that exposure to TV violence results in real-life aggression. As we move into the digital era with enhanced images and sound, media violence will undoubtedly continue to be a focus of public concern and scientific research. In recent times, it appears the rate at which violence is aired on television is increasing. Osuji (2009) defined violence as an act accompanied by attack or force inflicting injury or pains on another person. Enyi (2003) conjointly outlined violence because the act of showing in motion footage and flicks the acts attended with attacks and injuries. More so, violence on the streets as well as the tendency of youths to act violently, after viewing violence has become an increasingly disturbing issue among many concerned groups. The combination of sound and vision has made television exert tremendous influence in shaping the lives of people in the society. It is informing, educating, entertaining and persuasive. As a result of this, it is a powerful force in determining the socio-emotional and academic adjustments of people. Despite the importance of television, its harmful effects cannot be overemphasized as it shapes the peoples’ socio-economic and personal aspects of life. People watch violent movies/films on television screen without considering if its advantages out weight the harmful effects on their lives and the society at large (Bushman & Cantor, 2003). Different television stations show violent and horror movies that students often like to copy and form attitude about life without weighing the hazardous effects of such violent movies on one’s behaviour. In this case, television is easily manipulated by movie makers to show movies that dominate the realm of peoples’ reasoning thus consciously or unconsciously impacting on their socio-emotion and personal adjustments. With its adaptability to modern technology, television is a veritable tool for integration by providing the viewers’ access to a variety of information which helps them to know and understand each other but when wrongly manipulated it influences the socio-emotional and personal adjustment of people. Today Nigerians copy role models from television screens in the form of clothing, hairstyle, language and attitudes. The aftermath is that greater number of people in Nigeria tends to reflect these attitudes in the form of social vices such as gangsters, cultism and examination malpractices among students. The content of television programmes has unlimited violence which incorporates theft, shoot-outs, murder, and use of dangerous weapons. The proliferation of violent movies, within the market tends to extend the speed of violence being carried out by people especially the youths. Considering the ever increasing cases of cult clashes resulting in bloodletting and death of students countless records of rape and armed robberies by students leads to the fact that heavy exposure to televised violence influences the viewer’s social behaviour. Television is emotionally and psychologically harmful to children and youths. Television seems to be most significant in leisure activity. The National Television violence study (NTSV) conducted from 2017 to 2016, reported that watching so much violence on television causes children and young adults to think that the world is a mean and dangerous place (American Psychological Association, 2006). Violence on television is inextricably linked to human aggression and emotional imbalance. However, some researchers do not believe that there is a conclusive body of evidence to justify this view.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Violence is one of the dominating messages disseminated through the sensation of television, which plays an active role in entertaining and impacting the lives of today‘s young audience. The influence of televised violence on socio-emotional and personal adjustment of people has been largely associated with imbibing new ways of life and has not been properly addressed by different researchers. These ways include social, emotional and mental behaviours. Because of its prevalence, violence on TV has grown to be a controversial issue on which several studies have been conducted since the 1950s. The rate of rioting, killing, rape, assault, kidnapping, robbery, use of explosives and the likes by people in Nigeria is increasing without measure and visible control systems. Speculation as to the causes of the recent display of violence by these youth groups has reignited debates about televised violence and its effects on youth behaviour. Violence in the television programmes has increasingly reached dangerous proportions. Kaplan (2012), notes that virtually two-thirds of television programmes contain some form of physical violence. Although, youth violence could be caused by other factors like poverty, family weakness, peer pressure, child abuse, exposure to domestic and community violence, and other psychiatric disorders, this research aimed at finding television broadcasting and the promotion of violence in Nigeria.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate television broadcasting and the promotion of violence in Nigeria. Other specific objectives are as follows;
1. To examine television broadcasting and how it promotes violence in Nigeria.
2. To examine television broadcasting and the kind of programs they show on TV stations.
3. To examine the influence of television broadcasting on the youths in Nigeria.
4. To examine the impact of television broadcasting over the behaviour of the viewers in Nigeria.
5. To examine the relationship between television broadcasting and violence in Nigeria.
6. To recommend ways of improving on portrayal of media violence in television broadcasting in Nigeria.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is television broadcasting and how does it promote violence in Nigeria?
2. What are the kind of programs they show on TV stations during broadcast?.
3. How does television broadcasting influence the youths in Nigeria?
4. What are the impacts of television broadcasting over the behaviour of the viewers in Nigeria?
5. What is the relationship between television broadcasting and violence in Nigeria?
6. What are the ways of improving on portrayal of media violence in television broadcasting in Nigeria?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no effect of television broadcasting on promotion of violence in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant effect of television broadcasting on promotion of violence in Nigeria.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It has been observed in recent times that the entertainment industry in Nigeria is blossoming especially in its dominance in the contents of the programming of most television stations in Nigeria. Therefore, this study seeks to draw the attention of media practitioners and owners (especially television) to the vital role television plays as an agent of promoting violence. Having this fact in mind, television media practitioners and owners will be mindful of the kind of entertainment programmes they air, most especially at prime time, knowing fully the vulnerable and gullible nature of teenagers. A research into how entertainment television shapes the social behaviour of teenagers whether positively or negatively appears novel, especially in television media studies. This is a contemporary issue which scholars in the field of media studies have paid little or no attention to. Therefore, part of the uniqueness of this study is that it will be of immense significance to researchers in the academia. It does not only aim at contributing to knowledge but also providing a foundational basis for further studies into the role of television broadcasting in promoting violence. Nonetheless, parents and also teenagers who are the at the heart of this study will understand fully the positive and negative roles entertainment television plays in contributing to shaping their social behaviour in their immediate environment. It will also avail counsellor’s viable information on where and how to draw inferences for peoples social behaviours. This is because people might not only behave in a certain manner because of mere peer influence, but also from what they watch on television, especially from people or celebrities they see as role models. It is also believed that the findings of this study will be an added resource to available literature and will be used to promote informed decision-making and policies by the regulating bodies of the broadcast and entertainment industry.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to television broadcasting and the promotion of violence in Nigeria: An appraisal of the National Broadcasting Commission.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Television: Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program ("TV show"), or the medium of television transmission.
Broadcasting: Is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
Promotion: Activity that supports or encourages a cause, venture, or aim.
Violence: Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, mal-development, or deprivation," although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.