BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Many nations of the world today are described as developed due to their scientific and technological breakthroughs. The general acceptance that mathematical methods are basic solutions to all kinds of problems has rightly enhanced the importance attached to physics instructions in secondary schools (Galadima; 2010). Further, the roles of physics towards realizing scientific and technological feats are unquestionable. The extent to which physics supplies nutrients to science and technology is the extent to which the later survives. This shows that mathematical implications are scientific imports in mathematical problems (Aliyu, 2008). In the words of Onoh (2006), the importance of physics education in Nigerian educational system and the nation’s technological development has been given recognition. This fact is adequately reflected in the new 6-3- 3-4 system of education which is geared towards self-realization, scientific and technological process (Federal Government of Nigeria, FGN2004). Jegede (2009) noted that there can be no real development technologically without a corresponding development in physics as conceived and practiced. However, despite the importance of physics in the scientific and technological development, students over the years have continued to achieve poorly in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in physics (Obioma & Ohuche, 2004). The poor achievement of students in physics has become a source of concern to students, parents, schools and the nation as a whole (Obodo, 2004) which now showed that the problem of poor achievement has not been resolved. Moreover, so many factors have been found to contribute to the students’ poor achievement in physics in SSCE. They include students’ unfavourable attitude to physics, teachers’ incompetence in teaching some mathematical concepts and the difficulty in understanding the technical language of physics (Obodo, 2004). Again Obodo (2004) in his studies found that students achieved poorly in public examinations which is attributable to poor method of instruction. He continued that some teachers do not care to use instructional materials while presenting concepts, thereby making the subjects uninteresting, boring and unattractive to students. There is then the need to look for alternative methods of teaching physics so as to enhance students’ achievement. This gives credence to the fact that guided discovery method of teaching physics has to be designed in order to determine the extent to which it can help students achieve highly in physics in physics. Guided discovery, for instance, is based on curiosity and interest where the teacher leads the students, entices them with word and smile to learn, selecting for them the path of learning, choosing every step that leads to the objectives, notifying them of their errors, correcting them when they make mistakes(Young, 2006). However, expository method of teaching involves verbalization and presentation of information on the chalkboard by the teacher. On the words of Dienye and Gbamanja (2007), expository method is teacher-centered, where the teacher is seen as the embodiment of knowledge and students considered ignorant. Furthermore, for many years, there have been a number of research studies which have demonstrated differences between sexes in various areas of physics achievement. Agwagah (2006) opined that male and female students are gifted in academic achievement and that none is superior to the other. Besides, Obodo (2004) stated that males, in junior and senior secondary schools do like physics better than female students do. It appears that findings on gender as factor in physics achievement are contradictory. Moreover, other methods of teaching physics could be designed to arouse the interest of students to understand physics better. This is so because, when for instance, other methods of teaching physics like guided discovery is employed, learning may be enhanced because it is based on curiosity and interest. It is therefore against this backdrop that this study was conducted with a view to ascertaining whether guided discovery method could enhance Secondary School Students achievement in physics more than expository method.
STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
The poor academic performance of students as a result of several factors has been a major cause for concern as much has been done by both government, stakeholders and schools to improve this but unfortunately has not yielded the required result. the poor academic performance of students has grossly affected the educational system in Nigeria which does not augur well for a developing economy like ours.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the effect of expository and guided method on students’ academic achievement and attitude towards physics in secondary schools in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study are to;
H0: There is no significant relationship between expository and guided discovery method and students’ academic performances and attitude to physics in Nigerian schools
H1: There is a significant relationship between expository and guided discovery method and students’ academic performances and attitude to physics in Nigerian schools
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would greatly improve the study towards the improvement of students’ attitude and academic performance/achievement in physics. The study should also be of immense importance to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing a further study on the subject matter.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the effect of expository and guided discovery method on students’ achievement and attitude towards physics in Illorin Kwara state, Nigeria.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.