1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education in all over the world has, been recognized as an important means for promoting economic and social development both at individual and national levels. The growth of the global economy and the information based society has pressurized education systems around the world to use technology and media broadcast to teach students the knowledge and skills they need (UNESCO 2005). Quality education is a global concern in virtually all societies. To achieve it, efficient and quality teaching needs to be employed. However, this may not occur without the use of educational broadcast. The use of media for promoting learning or as a supplement for classroom teaching continues to attract much attention because of the major role the mass media play in the contemporary society. The instructional material which media provides is often used in the educational development of students in Nigeria (Nworgu and Nworgu, 2008). This constant use of media for instructional purpose has led to the popularization of the abbreviation, IM (instructional media) among scholars both within and outside the country. The media have also become the recognized story tellers of the world. They have provided opportunities for governments and private organizations to push back ignorance through the promotion of learning in formal, non-formal and informal settings. This fact was recognized by the then Western Regional Government in Nigeria when, in 1959, it started the western Nigeria media (WNM). One of the major reasons for the establishment of the WNM was to use media as a surrogate teacher, particularly in rural areas where government at that time lacked sufficient teaching staff to service the free education policy of the Western Regional government (Folarin, 2007). Since then, media has been used in Nigeria to supplement teaching in both senior secondary and junior secondary school levels. It has contributed to the educational development of Nigerians - both children and adults (Duyile, 2007) There seems to be therefore, a relationship between education and media. Although this link is often overlooked, both still have the major goals of providing information, imparting knowledge and experiences (Iredia, 2003). The differences between them exist only by way of institutional structures, methods and emphasis but their connection seems obvious. The broadcast media, precisely television, can be used to teach arts, drama, poetry, and music, and also bring inspirations of teachers, artists, and scientists into the lives of millions of students who may not have the opportunity to be members of the formal education population. It can also bring learning and knowledge to a huge number of people and thus becomes a motivation for increase in actual enrolment in many Nigerian schools. All these potentials, which abound in media as a broadcast medium, could be used to promote learning in schools. But regrettably, the potentials have not been fully utilized, the reason is not far-fetched. Many of the educational and instructional programmes in Nigerian media stations tend to have audiences that are merely passive viewers. They are passive because little contact is usually made between the staff who produce the programmes and the audiences (Okunna, 1999). One way to achieve wider participation of these audiences is to increase access to the broadcast media. This insufficient access may have been caused by lack of media infrastructure and cost of buying radio or media sets, (Sobowale, 1989). But the trend seems to have changed significantly in recent years, although the number of Nigerians who own media sets and the type of programmes they prefer is even still uncertain. Apart from lack of infrastructure and cost, illiteracy, low income and some socio-cultural factors, this insufficient access affect people’s access to media. Religious beliefs can also hinder access even where the people do have the income and education. While religious hindrance could be experienced in the north, social barriers like male apathy towards education could be the problem in the south eastern parts of the country. For example, the drop-out rate among young males in the south eastern part of the country is becoming a growing concern. Many young males do not enrol in schools, while others drop out of schools to pursue a perceived lucrative career in petty trading and general merchandizing business which is popular in the religion, (Igbokwe and Eze, 2008). Educational broadcasting involves the use of the broadcast media for educational purposes. It is designed for both formal and non-formal education. Extensive educational broadcasting targets people in the non-formal setting, while intensive educational broadcast is therefore, the process of learning and gaining knowledge to empower community people, promote development and general education. These goals as Ogunmilade (2010) notes were based on the realization that both media are capable of reaching large population with educational messages which could be packaged in local languages. Therefore; this study is set to establish teacher’s awareness and use of educational broadcast for teaching in secondary.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
However, the pursuit of an efficient education system should be premised along the line of its functional approach as an effective means of accelerating social, economic, scientific and technological process. The broadcast media have universal value because they can break their barrier of literary and social science class. Their signals do not discriminate on the basis of socio-economic and educational background. This potential informed the conceptualization of broadcasting in the context of education. In a bid to harness this potential, successive government, Nigeria have adopted mechanisms to achieve functional literacy. The population explosions syndrome as triggered off by increased enrolment of students in most public and private institutions. It is a common observation in more public secondary schools to see students surging out of classroom while some other will be handing on the light of the above ensuring circumstances, that successive government in Nigeria have designed instructional systems that will reach many learners at the same time irrespective of geographical, social and political boundaries. Educational Broadcast is the panacea.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine teacher’s awareness and use of educational broadcast for teaching in secondary schools. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine educational broadcast.
2. To examine teachers awareness and use of educational broadcast for teaching and how it influences academic performance.
3. To examine the problems of educational broadcast for teaching in secondary schools.
4. To examine the level of teachers awareness and use of educational broadcast for teaching in secondary schools.
5. To examine the relationship between teachers awareness and use of educational broadcast for teaching in secondary schools.
6. To identify solutions to the challenges facing teachers awareness and use of educational broadcasting for teaching in secondary schools.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is educational broadcast?
2. How does teacher’s awareness and use of educational broadcast for teaching in secondary schools influence academic performance?
3. What are the problems of educational broadcast for teaching in secondary schools?
4. What is the level of teacher’s awareness and use of educational broadcast in teaching in secondary schools?
5. What is the relationship between teacher’s awareness and use of educational broadcast for teaching in secondary schools?
6. What are the challenges facing teacher’s awareness and use of educational broadcasting for teaching in secondary schools?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant influence of teacher’s awareness and use of educational broadcast for teaching on student’s academic performance in secondary schools.
H1: There is a significant influence of teacher’s awareness and use of educational broadcast for teaching on student’s academic performance in secondary schools.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will have much significance on the following people. First and foremost, the findings of the study will be of much significance to students, researchers and teachers in secondary schools. This is so because the report of the study will serve as a good reference document to this group of learners when conducting a research on uses of educational broadcast for teaching. Again, the study has much significance on the government in Nigeria. This is so because, it will serve as a source of information to the government that the non-provision of broadcast facilities to teaching provides basis for the falling standard of learning in the country. The study will be significant to parents, this is so because when conducting parents-teachers meeting, such an issue might be raised and this will serve as a good reference document in providing solutions. The study could be beneficial to curriculum planners who would design functional curriculum by taking into considerations facilities for educational broadcast. The findings of this study will guide the choice of broadcasting media used in the teaching/learning process. The findings of this study will equally help to alleviate the problems of educational broadcast.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on teacher’s awareness and use of educational broadcast for teaching in secondary schools in Borgu L. G. A, Niger State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Educational Broadcast: Educational broadcasting can be defined as the transmission of education or educational programmes through radio waves from a television or radio station or any other broadcast device, to the audience in far and near places.
Teaching: Is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and making specific interventions to help them learn particular things.
Awareness: Is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events. More broadly, it is the state of being conscious of something. Secondary School: Secondary school is the next step up from primary school. Secondary schools are often called high schools in the United States. Secondary schools may be public schools, grammar schools or comprehensive schools.