1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The menace of academic failure among secondary school graduates has stared both the government and stakeholders in the face. There is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education as a big problem that is hindering the posterity of the Nigerian nation in terms of quality man power resources. Most students in secondary school experience academic problem that shows itself in the form of academic poor performance. Several researchers have sought to find out the reasons for the downward trend in the academic performance of secondary school students. Adesehinwa (2013) analysed the effect of family type and poor funding on students’ academic achievement; Ogbemudia and Aiasa (2013) researched on lack of good home foundation for pupils as cause of poor performance by students; Achieng (2012) found home factors, student factors and institutional capability as the causes whereas Adesehinwa and Aremu (2010) posited that factors resident in students, family, society, government and the school may be composite causative effects for these downtrend; they, however concluded that there is a need for each of these variables to be considered extensively, hence the focus of this study to critically consider influence of home on academic performance of secondary school students. Other studies showed that the level of family cohesion (Caplan et al, 2014 cited in Diaz, 2004), and family relationships (Buote, 2009) proved themselves capable of predicting performance. Over a period of time, it has been observed that students exposed to the same lessons by the same teachers perform differently when they are evaluated (Adesehinwa, 2013). This shows that outside the college atmosphere, different factors influence students’ tutorial performance. Conjointly variations within the tutorial performances of talented and non-gifted kids can't be copied to high school atmosphere (Adesehinwa and Aremu, 2010). Hence, several uncontrolled variables will be chargeable for academic performance of scholars usually, gymnasium students inclusive. Schiefelbaum and Simmons (2009) cited by Adell, (2014) think about family background the foremost vital and most weighty think about decisive the educational performance earned by the scholar. Among the family factors of that have greatest influence is the unit of socio-economic class variables and therefore the instructional and family atmosphere. Emeke (2013) stressed that the condition and therefore the nature of social interaction that goes on within the family might have some positive or negative influence on the educational accomplishment of a toddler. One in every of the tasks of Education is to coach young people to become useful members of the society and this training begins at home in the informal way. The home of the student is the first place he/she enters when born into the world by parents. A home is a place where students live with their parents or guardian and it is the place where they are groomed. It is a place where the students begin to learn the norms and values of the society in which they find themselves. The family is a social unit in any society and it is the source of early stimulation and experience in children (Collins, 2015). The home influences the students at the most earliest possible time of his life at a time when his mind is most receptive. It provides the first impression which may last through the whole life of the child. The child often sees the parents, siblings and things in their immediate environment to be most significant and they are capable of promoting or diminishing him in self worth and academic performance (Ekanem, 2004). The family, being a powerful influence on the child and its importance as a primary agent of socialization could in no doubt enhance or hinder the academic achievement of the child depending on the social climate in the family. Variance in psycho-social emotional fortification in the family background could be an indicator to high or low academic performance of students, bearing in mind the intervening effect of high and low socio-economic status and emotional stability of students which is a pre-requisite to academic achievement (Adebule, 2004). Home is the person’s primary environment from the time he is born until the day he dies; hence its effect on the individual is also most significant and enduring. Home environment is the most important institution for the existence and continuance of human life and the development of various personality traits. Every parent is highly concerned with providing material facilities to their children and ignoring the other facilities. It is a false notion among most parents that by providing a child with a fully furnished separate room and arranging some tuition for it, their duty to help children in their studies over. This is because psychological problems are potential sources of trouble with learning. It is therefore against these backgrounds that this study sought to determine influence of home environment on physics academic performance of secondary school students in Akwanga L.G.A.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Good education does not happen by chance. It is a product of effective teaching and learning coupled with the effort of the teacher, the school, students, parents and various home environments. Often at times the blames of poor students performance is always being shifted to the teachers and school authorities. Most families in our societies seem not to give adequate attention to the education of their children. It appears most of the parents have erroneous notion about the performance of their children; they do not know and seem to fulfil their role of guidance and encouragement in the child’s performance in schools. The importance of education in an individual cannot be over emphasized. Education has a long lasting impact on one’s life. For example the acquisition of knowledge and skills and all other things that is worthwhile, which are transmitted to a person through formal and informal education determines his or her potential in future. Basically, we understand that the home is the first school for a child where he or she is taught the basics norms and values by the parents before the child leaves for the formal education Contrary to popular opinion. Learning and reading begins in school but the first foundation of the child begins in school but the first foundation of the child begins at home (Binkley 1998). Some people also have the notion that the mass failure or success in schools could be traced back to the teachers and the school authorities while others see the socio economic status of the family as an influence to the child’s academic performance. It is on this premise that this studies was set out to identify some of the home environmental factors affecting student’s performance in SS2 physics.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine influence of home environment on SS2 physics students. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine parental socio-economic factors that may influence SS2 physics students’ academic performance.
2. To examine parental level of education and how it influences student’s academic performance in physics.
3. To examine the influence of home environmental factors on SS2 physics students performance.
4. To examine the extent parental involvement influence SS2 physics student’s performance.
5. To examine the relationship between home environment and SS2 physics students’ academic performance.
6. To suggest ways of achieving better performance of students studying physics.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. How does parental socio-economic status influence SS2 physics students’ academic performance?
2. How does parental level of education influence student’s academic performance in physics?
3. What are the influences of home environment on SS2 physics student’s performance?
4. To what extent does parental involvement influence SS2 physics student’s performance?
5. What is the relationship between home environment and SS2 physics students’ academic performance?
6. What are the suggested ways of achieving better performance of students studying physics?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: There is no significant influence of home environment on SS2 physics student’s performance.
H02: There is no significant relationship between home environment and SS2 physics students’ academic performance.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Education is of immense importance to individuals and to the society at large. Educators have greatly assumed that the home environment, to a large extent determines the progress of an individual in learning situation. This study will therefore highlight the significant differences in various home environments. The study will enable educationist and curriculum planners to take full cognizance of individual difference among children in any teaching/ learning environment while planning. It will also help teachers to cater for the various classes of school children in the classroom. Also, it will enable the teacher to adopt new dimensional approaches while teaching finally parents irrespective of their educational qualification should encourage the child at home, and also provide the maximum stimulation at all times. Hopefully, the study will assist the Principals in public secondary schools to understand how home environment affects students’ academic performance and assist the students to perform better. Also the students will be able to intervene in the case of poor performance to offset the negative effects of changing dynamics of the family. This study will also help the parents to understand the effect of the home environment on academic performance of student’s hence improving their home environment so as to improve student’s academic performance. The study would also be useful to other researchers in supplementing the existing literature on the same study area and would also provide a rich ground for further research based on the gaps left out by this study.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on influence of home environment on SS2 physics students: case study of Akwanga L.G.A, Nasarawa State.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Home Environment: Home environment in this context simply means the immediate surroundings and first institution where a child is taught the basic norms and values by the parents before he or she proceeds to acquire formal education.
Learning: Measurable and relatively permanent change in behaviour through experience, instruction, or study. Knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study.
Socio Economic Status: this is the total state of an individual based on inequality in terms of occupation, level of education and other societal issues
Performance: Refers to the grades both per subject and overall that the pupil obtained in examination.
Socio-Cultural Background: this is the social and cultural makeup of an individual in relationship with his or her environment.