1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The differential scholastic achievement of students in Nigeria has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Nigeria (Adebule, 2011). Parents and government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend. Teachers also complain of students’ low performance at both internal and external examination. The annual releases of Senior Secondary Certificate Examination results (SSCE) conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) justified the problematic nature and generalization of poor secondary school students’ performance in different school subjects Poor academic performance according to Aremu (2011) is a performance that is adjudged by the examiner and the tester and some other significant as falling below an expected standard. Poor academic performance has been observed in school subjects especially mathematics and English language among secondary school students (Adesemowo, 2015). Aremu (2000) stresses that academic failure is not only frustrating to the students and the parents, its effects are equally grave on the society in terms of dearth of manpower in all spheres of the economy and politics. Education at secondary school level is supposed to be the bedrock and the foundation towards higher knowledge in tertiary institutions. It is an investment as well as an instrument that can be used to achieve a more rapid economic, social, political, technological, scientific and cultural development in the country. The National Policy on Education (2011) stipulated that secondary education is an instrument for national development that fosters the worth and development of the individual for further education and development, general development of the society and equality of educational opportunities to all Nigerian children, irrespective of any real or marginal disabilities. The role of secondary education is to lay the foundation for further education and if a good foundation is laid at this level, there are likely to be no problem at subsequent levels. However, different people at different times have passed the blame of poor performance in secondary school to students because of their low retention, parental factors, association with wrong peers, low achievement, low retention, low achievement motivation and the likes (Aremu & Sokan, 2011; Aremu & Oluwole 2001; Aremu, 2000). Morakinyo (2011) believe that the falling level of academic achievement is attributable to teacher’s non-use of verbal reinforcement strategy. Others found out that the attitude of some teachers to their job is reflected in their poor attendance to lessons, lateness to school, unsavoury comments about student’s performance that could damage their ego, poor method of teaching and the likes affect students’ academic performance. The academic performance of secondary school students in the West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) has taken a dramatic decline in recent times. This poor performance cuts across all subjects including Business studies. There is no gainsaying that the purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning such that the students will be able to achieve high academic performance in examinations. For teachers of Business studies, it is important that they understand and appreciate the determinants of their students’ performance in the subject. This knowledge will help the teachers to organize the teaching and learning process such that the students will achieve high performance in Business studies. The fact remains that; there can be no excellent academic performance without effective teaching and learning. It has been established among Psychologists that a number of factors determine the ability of the students. Some of these factors include; the learning environment, the competence of the teacher, motivation, the interest of the students to mention but a few. Numerous studies have analyzed the factors behind the performance of students. Identifying the variables that influence the academic performance of students at school is of great importance for two reasons. On one hand, it is an essential tool for the public authorities in charge of definition of optimal and efficient education policies. On the other hand, this kind of analysis can help the educational institutions to improve the quality of their programmes (Awa, 2011) cited in Issah (2009).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The benefits of studying business studies cannot be over emphasized, as such, when students fail or perform poorly in business studies examination; they lose the opportunity to fully enjoy those benefits. The question therefore is what are the factors influencing students performance in Business Studies? The persistent poor performance of secondary school students in public examinations such as the Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) in Akure Metropolis, in the recent times has made the development of secondary education in the area a difficult task. Parents, guardians and other stakeholders in education industry have variously commented on the performances of secondary school students particularly in Business studies (Adepoju, 2002). Many state governments in Nigeria have made several attempts to make it a policy not to have more than 30 students per class in secondary schools with a view to improving the performance of students in external and internal examinations. The present study therefore sought to find out the causes of and trends in student performance in business studies in Akure Metropolis.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate factors influencing student’s performance in senior secondary examination business studies. Other specific objectives are as follows;
1. To examine if the availability and uses of teaching and learning materials have effect on performance of students in business studies.
2. To examine the factors affecting student’s poor performance in business studies in Akure metropolis.
3. To examine teacher qualification and teaching environment relating to performance of students in business studies.
4. To examine the effect of teaching and learning aids on students academic performance.
5. To examine the relationship between teacher commitment to teaching and work habit and the performance of student in business studies.
6. To recommend ways of improving the student’s academic performance in senior secondary certificate examination.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. How does the availability and uses of teaching and learning materials have effect on performance of students in business studies?
2. What are the factors affecting student’s poor performance in business studies in Akure metropolis?
3. How does teachers qualification and teaching environment relates to performance of students in business studies?
4. What are the effects of teaching and learning aids on student’s academic performance?
5. What is the relationship between teacher commitment to teaching and work habit and the performance of student in business studies?
6. What are the recommended ways of improving the student’s academic performance in senior secondary certificate examination?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: There is no significant relationship between factors affecting academic performance and students’ poor performance during external examinations in business studies.
H1: There is a significant relationship between factors affecting academic performance and students’ poor performance during external examinations in business studies.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Although, the new national policy on education in Nigeria emphasized on business education and other skill subject, business studies at secondary school is not effectively implemented. It is hoped that the finding of this study will make education authorities to give attention to business education programme. Also the findings and recommendation will provide useful information for the causes of low performance in business studies by business education teachers and principals of secondary schools improving plan for implementing business education programme. In addition, it will serve as a useful guide to guidance, counsellors, parents, teachers and principals in advising the students on choice of future career in the field of business.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to factors influencing student’s performance in senior schools certificate examination business studies in Akure metropolis.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Business Studies: This will be used in their inter changeably with business education or business study throughout this study means commercial subject offered under groups seven of west African examination council (WAEC) syllabus 1985. It is defined as the total activity which is planned, organized for youths to meet the technical and commercial of act complex society.
Influence: The power to have an effect on people or things, or a person or thing that is able to do this.
Student:A person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in aschool or college; pupil
Academic Performance: It refers to the percentage of enrolled students completing educational level.
Students’ Performance: It refers to how well a student meets standards set out by local government and the institution itself.