This study tends to analyze and evaluate the causes and problems of youth unemployment in Nigeria, using a survey of Okirika Local Government in Rivers State. The researcher analyzed the causes of youth unemployment problems and recommended ways of addressing the problem. Descriptive survey and simple percentage method was used for the analysis of data obtained from the responses of the respondents. Primary and secondary data were obtained through the use of questionnaire, textbooks, personal interview etc. It was discovered that the level of unemployment is relatively high in the rural areas compared to the urban areas. It was concluded that unemployment problem is caused as a result of malpractices in the employment process as a result of job scarcity. It was recommended among others that government should set up industries in order to create employment opportunities to the youth.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the past, it will be unreasonable to find youth searching or looking for employment because the Nigeria economy was good then. Every hopeful youth, whether a graduate or a school leaver had a job in waiting in the mid 70s parlance was so and serves than a pick up job.
We also had some big corporations names like TEXACO, NNPC, SHELL, AGIP, AUC, CHEVRON and a host of others that are ready to absorb the youths.
As present, unemployment has been a major socio economic problem in Okirika Local Government Area of Rivers State. It has also become a natural phenomenon in Okirika Area, you will find youth searching or looking for job, without finding one, they will end up reading newspaper, watching adverts and at the end, if they see any one, if is either there is no more vacancy or godfatherism (if you are connected).
However, the researcher has chosen this topic for study because of his concern in the welfare of the people which may be improved when this problem is being studied, and the causes are identified and also the recommended solution, thus the problem solved or at least reduced to the barest minimum which in this research is intended to do. In the light of this fact, the researcher essay attempted to answer the question such as what are the general causes of unemployment. Is unemployment in Okirika Local Government Area a peculiar topic? Is there a particular set of people that are mostly affected with this problem? Are they victims of government policies or is it that the school curriculum does not tally with the jobs that are available? Is there any implication of this problem? What can be done to wipe it out or at lease reduce it to a manageable proportion?
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Nowadays, the government is often blamed for the rate of unemployment in the society without actually finding out the other related factors that are responsible in cause of unemployment problem as far as the society is concerned. Should the whole problems be entirely heaped on the government who always want the best for her citizens despite the huge financial involvement? One would like to find out the justification the people have for blaming the government as regard the very low unemployment situation in the society while in actual sense the problem is due to many factors. This research work was prepared with the aid of some data that were collected from the public intending to answer the following questions.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What are the general causes of unemployment?
ii. Is unemployment in Okirika Local Government Area a peculiar one?
iii. Is there any set of people that are mostly affected by this phenomenon?
iv. Who are these people and why are they unemployed?
v. What can be done to wipe-out or at least reduce it to a manageable proportion?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
HO: There is no significant relationship between the neglect of the youths by labour contractors.
HI: There is significant relationship between the neglect of the youths by labour contractors.
HO: There is no significant relationship between the discrimination by companies in employment and in youth employment.
HI: There is significant relationship between discrimination by companies in employment and in youth employment.
HO: The government has no significant impact on the employment of youths in oil companies.
HI: The government has significant impact on the employment of youths in oil companies.
1.5 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The researcher tends to uncover the catalyst that spur the unemployment problem in the oil producing communities, a case study of Okirika Local Government Area of Rivers State. To investigate whether the youths see labour contractors as discriminating against them in employment. And also find out whether the youth see government policies as discriminating against them in employment.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The main attention of this research work into the nature and scope of unemployment problem amongst the youths in Okirika Local Government Area of Rivers State using a number of randomly selected towns and clans as sample.
It has also been researched and affirming proportion in Okirika Local Government Area. Here and there, you find so many youths that are unemployed and the need for a job visibility written on their faces.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance and relevance of this study is to determine the unemployment among youth, what is the way forward and the extent to which the problem can be solved or reduced to the bearest minimum as the aspiration of the local people and Nigeria as a whole.
The research work is also relevant in the area of the implication of unemployment in the society and discovered that it is the duty of government to create an additional employment opportunities.
Finally, this study is also relevant as it will showcase the factors that have militated against employment and their solutions.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
There is no study undertaken by researcher that is perfect. This could be as a result of some constraints that affect the researcher in the course of the study. The limitation of the study is concerned with the constraints which could come up in the course of the project or research work. Some of these constraints are;
a. Inadequate funds
b. Inadequacy of primary data
c. Time constraints
d. The researcher also find it difficult to travel to all the towns and clans as a result of bad or poor road network.
e. Inability to communicate and elicit response from the respondents most especially those in the rural areas as a result of language barrier or inability of the rural dwellers to understand the researcher and supply the necessary information that may be useful for his research work.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the purpose of this study, it is very important to clarify some of the concepts of unemployment.
As defined by Sloan and Zurcher (2000), the term “unemployment” refers to as the condition of being unable to find a gainful employment when able and willing to work. But as used in the context of this study, unemployment in a theoretical perspective seeks to explain or rather expose the lapses in the society at large.
Youth: As it is being used in this thesis, a youth is a person or an individual that is between the age of 18 – 30 years of age, or a period of life when one becomes an adult. They are the people faced with the unemployment phenomenon in this study.
Employment: This refers to a state of being employed. It could also be referred to as one regular trade or profession that is given someone to either do physical or mental work for wages particularly to earn a living.
Policies: This refers to a plan of action that was agreed on or chosen by a particular party. They are also rules and regulations put in place by the government to govern its citizens.
Godfatherism: This refers to a very powerful and influential man in an organization. They are also the ones who can get a person a job regardless of job scarcity.