1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Conflict is inevitable among humans as long as they work in the same organization or live in the same society. When two or more social entities (i.e., individuals, groups, organizations, and nations) come in contact with one another in attaining their objectives, their relationships may become incompatible or inconsistent. Relationships among such entities may become inconsistent when two or more of them desire a similar resource that is in short supply; when they have partially exclusive behavioral preferences regarding their joint action; or when they have different attitudes, values, beliefs, and skills. “Conflict is the perception of differences of interests among people” (Thompson, 1998).
Another definition of conflict would be a process of social interaction involving a struggle over claims to resources, power and status, beliefs, and other preferences and desires. The aims of the parties in conflict may extend from simply attempting to gain acceptance of a preference, or securing a resource advantage, to the extremes of injuring or eliminating opponents. (Bisno, 1988).
The theme of conflict has been with us and has influenced our thinking from time immemorial. It received different degrees of emphasis from social scientists during various periods of history. Over the years the phenomena relating to conflict have fallen within the same history, the novelist, the philosopher, and the theologian, and [have] been treated systematically by authors in all of the biological and social sciences. Conflicts between nations, political parties, and ideologies have been examined by the political scientist; conflicts in the market place have been examined by the economist; group conflicts of various kinds— racial, religious, and social class differing genetic endowments has been studied by the biologist. (Nightingale, 1974)
This world conflict has characterized the world in which we human being live in and it exist in various dimension, which ever form of conflict, takes; be it international or national conflict, its actors are human being. This is as a result that nations, organizations are by themselves in capable of engaging in conflict without people. That is to say that we are all participants of conflict. However, we still need the knowledge and are conscious of the principles and practice of conflict with a view of understanding and managing conflict in other to reduce its disastrous consequences and to utilize its positive effects. Another fundamental issue is the integration of peace and conflict studies in the curriculum of Nigerian institutions.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Conflicts in organization or society have been a tool of disharmony between two or more bodies. There has been a case of workers and organization having a serious rift which in most cases lead to chaos and undue delay in the administrative process which in turn adversely affects the entire organization in meeting up there goals and objectives.
Lack of communication is often a source of conflict. Disagreement refers to the ethical aspects, the modalities in which power should be exercised, taking into account moral probity and correctness. Such differences affect both the choice of objectives and methods. Some managers have the tendency to increase interpersonal conflicts in order to strengthen their positions within the organization. The ambiguity of the information, the wrong presentation of reality, denaturizing the others’ thinking are the main reasons for incompetent managers.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
i. To identify the causes of conflict in organization based on the fact that identifying a problem is the first step of resolving such problem
ii. To provide ways of resolving organizational conflict
iii. To give recommendations on the method of resolving conflict based on the research study
iv. To provide ways of avoiding conflict
v. To observe the negative effect of conflict in organizations
vi. To examine the positive effect of organizational conflict
1.4 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
Ho: Poor communication between the management and staff can not lead to conflict in organizations
Hi: Poor communication between the management and staff can lead to conflict in organizations.
Ho: conflict does not result to misunderstanding among two or more groups.
Hi: conflict does results to misunderstanding among two or more groups.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is to centralize and concentrate on the effect of conflict in organization. The study area is limited to Institute of Opencast Mining and Technology, Benin City.
The findings of the study are related specifically to the Institute of Opencast Mining and Technology Benin City. This study should not be seen as an ‘encyclopedia’ of dissimulating the people but for them to make good attempt to evaluate the works of conflict in organization and make some logical recommendations on conflict resolution.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There is no gain saying that there are no limitations in research work generally. Any shortcoming that arises in this study is as a result of factors which are beyond the researcher’s control.
Therefore, it will be of more importance to highlight certain militating factors that tend to narrow or limit my scope of study. This project would have been easier if not for these limitating factors:
1. Time factor: time was not on the researcher’s side to consult various sectors of the economy to review employees or given out questionnaire to various institutions on the effect of government revenue policies. As we all know, time is never our friend. The time scheduled for the completion of this research thesis was too short. As a result, generating information/data was strenuous as it coincides with final year examination period, which needed attention.
2. Finance: this is another barrier that limited the researcher’s work.
3. Available resources: substantial resources were not available to ease the research work.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work will help the government and readers to understand those benefits that conflict management embodies which we have neglected in the past. In understanding this on the side of the government, it will allow them to rethink and work towards real implementation of it thereby creating a room for harmony in public corporations or ministries in the country. On the other hand, it will go a long way to create an avenue for more academic research.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i) CONFLICT: is a total range of rift that persists between two or more party that led to chaos.
ii) RESOLUTION: this is a process by which conflict is bee resolve or problem is been resolve.
iii) ORGANIZATION: a group whose members work together for a shared purpose in a continuing way.
iv) EFFECTIVENESS: This is the ability or strength of the employee to bring the result intended to achieve the organizational goals.
v) EFFICIENCY: The quality of being capable of utilizing the material recourses to achieve the desired goal.
vi) EMPLOYEE: These are workers employed to perform jobs in an organization under an obligation, which they expect income as exchange for effort contribution to the growth of the organization.
vii) EMPLOYERS: They are the employer of labour, who might therefore said to be the controller of the activities of the establishment.
viii) EXPLOITATION: The process of being able to use a company’s natural resources such as adverts, covering of event, publicity of event for the attainment of profit maximization.
ix) LEADERSHIP: This is the act of influencing an individual or group of activities towards achievement of establishment.
x) MANAGEMENT: Is the effectiveness and optimum used of human and material resources to achieve a goal.
xi) RESPONSIBILITY: Is a person who is reliable and able to carryout various duties imposed on him/her by the establishment.
xii) STRENGTH: These are factors in the environment that place the organization at a advantages over its competitors
1.10 HISTORICAL PROFILE OF INSTITUTE OF OPENCAST MINING AND TECHNOLOGY
The Institution site is situated at No 2/3 Ediagbonyan Street Ogbeson Quarters Benin City. It is about 3.74km in area, while the site is easily accessible and near the immediate Oregbeni and Ohobve community in which 60% of the students reside. There is a residential facility where 40% of the students reside.
The layout is suitable for the purpose especially when one considers the positioning of the building, the lecture rooms, the library, the staff rooms and the Administrative offices.
The positioning of these facilities allows for proximity and convenience and reduces the amount of time spent in movement.
The building is properly maintained, general sanitation is adequate; the site is free from any industrial or natural omission or any other health hazard.
There is electricity on campus as well as in the nearby Oregbeni Federal Housing Estate and Ohobve Community where some students reside. The Institution has borehole water which makes water available on regular basis. It maintains a mail running services and a private mail bag which serves both the staff and the students in addition to the institution itself.
Institute of Opencast Mining and Technology is a Government Approved Technical/Vocational Institution, a subsidiary of Christian Chemical and Engineering Company (Nigeria) Limited.
The limited liability company was founded and incorporated in Nigeria in 1977.
The institution itself was founded 1978 but became a corporate body or subsidiary of the limited liability company (by special resolution on 17th September 1981.
The institution was established in 1978 as an Independence post Secondary Institution and located at Agenebode and Jattu Town in Etsako Local Government area of Edo State in 1982.
In 1989 there was need to relocate the institution and Benin was the choice based on the advice of the then commissioner for Education Prof. Agnes Uduebo. It was moved to Benin in 1990.