The study was focused on the effectiveness of loan syndication as a means of project finance in Nigeria with a particular reference to Assess Bank of Nigeria plc, Benin City. The study examines the extent to which loan syndication has contributed to the performance of the Nigeria enterprise. Data was collected through the administration of questionnaire numbering sixty (60) of which forty (40) were answered and returned. The responses from the returned questionnaire form the data for the research work. This data were analyzed on the basis of simple percentage while the chi-square were employed in the test of the hypothesis. The study reveals that loan syndication has improved the performance of the Nigeria enterprise. It has not been significantly applied in the basis of the findings made. It was recommended that participating bank in loan syndication business should endeavor to set up distinct department or section with good management structure capable of dealing with the cooperate borrowers seeking for syndication loans and that banks should be involved in a lot of innovating programme that will increase their deposit base in order to comprehensively eliminate the fear of a possible liquidating that may arise from making syndication loan which one major reason for which should shy away from providing adequate syndication facilities to industrialist.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
Chapter One: Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 2
1.3 Research Questions 4
1.4 Objectives of the Study 5
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 7
1.8 Limitations of the Study 8
1.9 Definition of Terms 8
Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Reasons for Syndicated Loan 13
2.3 Types of Syndications 15
2.4 Loan Market Participants 17
2.5 Marketing the Loan and Syndication Meetings 22
2.6 The Syndication Process 23
2.7 Contributions of Syndicated Loans in Project Financing 33
2.8 Syndicated Accounts in Default 35
2.9 Problems and Prospects of Loan Syndication 36
2.10 Corporate Social Responsibility 39
2.11 Loan Syndication Records of Access Bank Plc 42
2.12 Access Bank Business Structure and Strategy 44
2.13 The Process of Loan Syndication 46
2.14 The Obligations of Parties to the Syndicate 49
2.15 The Role for Loan Syndication 53
2.16 Measures to Ensure Successful 58
2.17 Operational Aspects of the Issues Involved 61
2.18 Factors Militating Against Efficient Loan Syndication 63
2.19 Syndication Method 65
Chapter Three: Research Method and Design 68
3.1 Introduction 68
3.2 Research Design 68
3.3 Description of Population of the Study 69
3.4 Sample Size 69
3.5 Sampling Techniques 69
3.6 Sources of Data Collection 69
3.7 Method of Data Presentation 70
3.8 Methods of Data Analysis 70
3.9 Actual Field Work 71
Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation 72
4.1 Introduction 72
4.2 Data Presentation 72
4.3 Data Analysis 73
4.4 Hypothesis Testing 90
Chapter Five: Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations 97
5.1 Introduction 97
5.2 Summary of Findings 97
5.3 Conclusion 100
5.4 Recommendations 101
Appendix A 106
Appendix B 107
1.1 Background to the Study
The overall economic growth in Nigeria both in the areas of industrialization and provision of social services, has increased the need for huge amounts of money to be borrowed from the financial institutions for their execution. The boom of early seventies brought a change in the structure of the economy towards increased in industrialization. As a result of deregulation from the monetary authorities and in order not to put all eggs in one basket, lenders would prefer to provide the huge loan for the financing of the economic and social projects through loan syndication.
Loan syndication (also known as consortium lending) may be defined as the art and process whereby a group of financial institutes provide credit facility to a borrower under common agreement, terms and conditions in simple loan documentation. The important features of syndicated loan are that they are typically very large amounts (several millions) and there are at least two lenders (a spread of banks) and one borrower commonly involved. The decision as to whether the financing of a project will be undertaken by a bank or consortium of banks will depend on the size of the finance or loan.
The borrower is usually a large or medium sized corporate body, government or parastatals with considered technical and managerial expertise. In loan syndication, one or two lender bank co-ordinate and manage the lending for every administration of such loan, one or more of the lending banks would act as the level/agent bank.
Loan syndication has continued to be on the increase because of the rapid expansion of the economy effectiveness of Foreign Exchange Market (FEM) which reduces the value of naira and inversely increasing overall costs of production and projects.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Loan syndication arises through the following fundamental causes namely;
a. Pooling of fund
b. Sharing of risk
In the process of meeting the two fundamental causes of loan syndication, there are some challenges that are likely to be encountered which may hinder its growth and survival and such challenges include;
However, the topic of the project is structured because of the following;
1.3 Research Questions
1. To what extent has syndicated loan been applied by Nigeria enterprises in project financing?
2. How adequate is syndicated loans provided by bank to industrialists in Nigeria?
3. What are the effects of long term nature of syndicated loans on the liquidity position of banks in Nigeria?
4. What are the prospects of loan syndication in Nigeria?
5. Can syndicated loan be said to provide adequate funds for project financing in Nigeria?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The formal objectives of the study are stated as follows;
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
HO: Syndicated loan has not been employed against other alternative as a medium/long term financing alternative.
HI: Syndicated loan has been employed against other alternative as medium/long term financing alternative.
HO: Syndicated loan does not have any effect in our national economy.
HI: Syndicated loan has effect in our national economy.
HO: Syndicated loan does not have much impact in out national economy.
HI: Syndicated loan has much impact in our national economy.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be of great benefit to bank management and regulatory authorities such as CBN, NDIC etc and also to general public. There is an adage that says “To whom much is give, much is expected”. The essence of banks giving out loan is for them to collect back their money with interest on it and will if they now want to give a large amount of money as loan then they will need more capital so the bank will need to call more banks in order to give large amount of money for loan.
To the general public, once a loan is given it increases market efficiency, then people will benefit from it and it will increase their standard of living, which will also increase the growth and development of that particular economy.
To other researchers, they can make use of this study as a reference i.e. to get additional information to what would have gathered.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is to know the extent of loan syndication in Nigeria. This project work shall examine how effective loan syndication has been able to increase the corporate and social responsibilities of the enterprise.
Also to evaluate how banks have been able to pull funds together to assist the corporate firms and how risks are been shared among those banks.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
One area of limitation is the constraint imposed by limited financial resources and time available to carry out the research. In the same vein, non-availability of enough data from banks posed a big problem and inability of the bank official to release some of the confidential materials, which would help the research work.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The terms used in the study can be defined as follows;
Loan: This is a credit facility granted to a customer which is installmentally payable over a specified period of time.
Loan Syndication: According to Anyanwokoro (1999), loan syndication is an arrangement by which different banks or financial institution team together to grant a large loan to a customer.
Project: A project is an undertaken with a view of maximizing project and reducing or minimizing loss.
Project Financing: Project financing means providing the necessary funds or facility needed for the efficient and effective implementation of a project.
Syndicate: This means an association of financiers or industrialists or backing consortium formed to carryout some big industrial projects.
Long Term Loan: A form of debt that is paid off over an extended time frame exceeds one year in duration.
Medium Term Loan: Is a loan where repayments are made over a period of between one and five years.
Short Term Loan: Is a loan scheduled to be repaid back in less than a year.
Repayment Period: The act of paying back money previously borrowed from a lender. A common method of repayment is a lump sum with interest at maturity.
Financial Market: Is a market in which people trade financial securities, commodities items of value at low transaction cost.
Borrower: Is a person that has applied, met specific requirements and received a monetary loan from a lender.
Lender: A private, public or institutional entity which makes funds available to others to borrow.
Financial Institution: Is an institution that provides financial services for its clients or members.
Financial Services: They are the economic services provided by the finance industry which encompasses a broad range of business.
Lead Bank: The bank of the borrowers choice that agree to raise the required amount either on a best effort base or under written obligation.
Agent Bank: This is an administrator of the loan.